JEDAN ASPEKT UNIVERZALNE JURISDIKCIJE U SAVREMENOM KRIVIČNOM PRAVU − SLUČAJ OULD DAH

Ključne reči: univerzalna jurisdikcija, amnestija, „haški model” u vezi s regulisanjem ekstradicije, tortura.

Apstrakt

Sa intenzivnim razvojem međunarodnog krivičnog prava uloga jurisdikcije čija primarna tačka vezivanja nije zaštita interesa konkretne države postaje sve značajnija. Drugim rečima, univerzalna jurisdikcija, o kojoj je reč, ne zasniva se na suverenitetu i tradicionalim osnovama jurisdikcije kao što su princip teritorijaliteta, aktivnog i pasivnog personaliteta i realni princip, već na potrebi i interesu međunarodne zajednice u celini za sprečavanjem određenih međunarodnih krivičnih dela. U pitanju su, na prvom mestu, međunarodna krivična dela „stricto sensu” („core crimes”), tačnije, genocid, zločini protiv čovečnosti i ratni zločini. Kada iz bilo kojih razloga izostaje reakcija međunarodnih sudskih tela npr. Međunarodnog krivičnog suda ili, pak, države koja inače ima „forum”, ali koja neće (najčešće iz razloga političke oportunosti) ili ne može da procesuira, tada univerzalna jurisdikcija može da popuni praznine u krivičnom gonjenju. Drugim rečima, institut univerzalne jurisdikcije izražava genuini međunarodni interes za stavljanjem tačke na nekažnjavanje učinilaca teških međunarodnih zločina (Preambula Rezolucije o univerzalnoj jurisdikciji u pogledu zločina genocida, zločina protiv čovečnosti i ratnih zločina).

U savremenom pravu ovaj institut se sreće i kod drugih krivičnih dela, a ne samo kod „core crimes”. U pitanju su tzv. ugovorna krivična dela, prvenstveno transnacionalnog karaktera. U ovom radu razmatramo da li univerzalna jurisdikcija, kao uostalom i ostali instituti koji proizlaze iz pravila „aut dedere aut judicare” („haški model” u vezi s regulisanjem ekstradicije), kad su predviđeni kod transnacionalnih krivičnih dela doprinose njihovom univerzalnom karakteru, tj. pozicioniranju kao dela od univerzalnog značaja. U tom smislu razmotrili smo dva slučaja iz međunarodne sudske prakse: slučaj „Ould Dah” i presudu Međunarodnog suda pravde: Belgija protiv Senegala, Pitanja vezana za obavezu „aut dedere aut judicare”.

Reference

Ambos, K. 2011. Judicial Creativity at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Is There a Crime of Terrorism under International Law?, Leiden Journal of International Law, 24, pp. 655-675.
Ambos, K. 2009b. The Legal Framework of Transitional Justice: A Systematic Study with a Special Focus on the Role of the ICC , https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1972143.
Ambos, K. 2009. Prosecuting Guantanamo in Europe: Can and Shall the Masterminds of the Torture – Memos Be Held Criminally Responsible on the Basis of Universal Jurisdiction, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 42(1).
Degan, V. Đ., Pavišić, B. & Beširević, V. 2011. Međunarodno i transnacionalno krivično pravo. Beograd: Službeni glasnik.
European Parliament, Workshop Universal jurisdiction and international crimes: Constraints and best practices, September 2018.
Kluwen, T. 2017. Universal Jurisdiction in Absentia Before Domestic Courts Prosecuting International Crimes: A Suitable Weapon to Fight Impunity? Goettingen Journal of International Law 8(1), pp. 7-38.
Kreß, C. 2009. International Criminal Law. Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Dostupno na: https://www.legal-tools.org/doc/de7638/pdf/ (25. 3. 2019).
Kress, C., 2006. Universal Jurisdiction over International Crimes and the Institut de Droit international, JICJ, 4(3), pp. 561–585.
Philippe, X. 2006. The principles of universal jurisdiction and complementarity: how do the two principles intermesh? International Review of the Red Cross, 88(862).
Ryngaert, S. 2005. Universal Criminal Jurisdiction over Torture.
Sadat, L. N. 2006. Exile, Amnesty and International Law, Notre Dame Law Revue, 81, p. 955.
Schabas, W. A. 2015. The European Convention on Human Rights, A Commentary.
Scharf, M. P. 2012. Universal Jurisdiction and the Crime of Aggression, Harvard International Law Journal, 53(2).
Scott, P. W. 2009. The Guatemala Genocide Cases: Universal Jurisdiction and Its Limits, Chi-Kent J. Int’l & Comp. 9, pp. 100-129.
The Long arms of Justice. 2014. Human Rights Watch.
Sudska praksa i ostali pravni izvori
Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 , (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium) (Merits), Judgment of 14 February 2002. Dostupno na: https://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/121/13743.pdf.
Constitutional Court of South Africa, Judgment: 30 October 2014, CCT 02/14. Dostupno na: http://216.157.36.161/Newsroom/Press-Releases/2014/~/media/Files/Zimbabwe/SALCjudgement.PDF.
Guatemala Genocide Case: Spanish Supreme Court, Decision No. 327/2003. 25 February 2003. Dostupno na: Spain%20-%20Guatemala%20Genocide%20case%20-%2025.02.2003%20[eng]%20(3).pdf.
The Supreme Constitutional Court STC 237/2005, 26 September 2005. Dostupno na: htps://www.tribunalconstitucional.es/ResolucionesTraducidas/237-2005,%20of%20September%2026.pdf.
Ould Dah v. France, Predstavka No. 13113/03, Odluka o prihvatljivosti, 30. 3. 2009.
Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2012, p. 422. Dostupno na: https://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/144/144-20120720-JUD-01-00-EN.pdf.
Belgium, 2003. Law on Universal Jurisdiction, 2003 Criminal Code CRCORG. Dostupno na: https://casebook.icrc.org/case-study/belgium-law-universal-jurisdiction.
El Salvador, 2016. Supreme Court Judgment on the Unconstitutionality of the Amnesty Law, 2013/145-2013, San Salvador, 13 July, CRCORG. Dostupno na: https://casebook.icrc.org/case-study/el-salvador-supreme-court-judgment-unconstitutionality-amnesty-law.
Netherlands, International Crimes Act 270 Act of 19 June 2003. Dostupno na: https://documents.law.yale.edu/sites/default/files/netherland international_crimes_act english.pdf.
The Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction, 2001. Princeton University, Program in Law and Public Affairs. Dostupno na: https://lapa.princeton.edu/hosteddocs/unive_jur.pdf.
Resolution on the Immunity from Jurisdiction of the State and of Persons Who Act on Behalf of the State in case of International Crimes, 2009. Institute of International Law. Dostupno na: http://www.idi-iil.org/app/uploads/2017/06/2005_kra_03_en.pdf.
Resolution RC/Res. 6 od 11. 6. 2010.
Spain, Contribution on the topic “The scope and application of the principle of universal jurisdiction” Madrid, 22 February 2016. Dostupno na: https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth/71/universal_jurisdiction/spain_e.pdf.
Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, 2012. Dostupno na: http://www.rscsl.org/Documents/scsl-statute.pdf.
Universal criminal jurisdiction with regard to the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, 2005. Institute of International Law, Krakow. Dostupno na: http://www.idi-iil.org/app/uploads/2017/06/2005_kra_03_en.pdf.
United Nations Secretary-General, The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-conflict Societies, 23 August 2004, S/2004/616. Dostupno na: http://archive.ipu.org/splz-e/unga07/law.pdf.
United Nations Secretary-General, The Scope and Application of the Principle of Universal Jurisdiction: Report of the Secretary-General Prepared on the Basis of Comments and Observations of Governments’, UN Doc. A/65/181, 29 July 2010. Dostupno na: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/689030/files/A_65_181-EN.pdf.
Objavljeno
2020-02-06
Sekcija
Pregledni naučni rad