DELOTVORNOST RADNOG ZAKONODAVSTVA I ULOGA INSPEKCIJE RADA U SVETLU STANDARDA MEĐUNARODNE ORGANIZACIJE RADA

  • Ljubinka M. Kovačević, PhD Pravni fakultet Univerzitet u Beogradu, Srbija
Ključne reči: primena radnog zakonodavstva, inspekcija rada, međunarodno radno pravo

Apstrakt

Uređivanje radnih odnosa praćeno je preduzimanjem mera od značaja za obezbeđivanje delotvorne primene radnog zakonodavstva. Među tim merama poseban značaj ima nadzor koji vrši inspekcija rada. U prošlom veku, u većini država razvijen je solidan pravni i institucionalni okvir inspekcijskog nadzora u svetu rada, pri čemu su mnoge države kao inspiraciju ili model za njegovu izgradnju koristile standarde sadržane u konvencijama Međunarodne organizacije rada br. 81 i 129. Uprkos tome, inspektori rada suočavaju se s brojnim izazovima i preprekama, između ostalog i stoga što proliferacija radnopravnih propisa i pojava novih profesionalnih rizika i novih formi rada nisu praćene odgovarajućim mehanizmima za obezbeđivanje delotvorne zaštite radnih prava. Ovo vredi i za izbijanje ekonomskih i finansijskih kriza, koje su redovno skopčane s nastojanjima poslodavaca da snize troškove rada zaobilaženjem primene radnopravnih, socijalnopravnih i poreskopravnih propisa. Ne treba gubiti iz vida ni to da u savremenom svetu rada ozbiljnu
prepreku za delotvoran inspekcijski nadzor predstavlja i činjenica da nemali broj radnika ostaje izvan personalnog područja primene radnog zakonodavstva. Takođe, nemali broj radnika radi „na crno”, dok je tzv. eksternalizacija rada zamaglila pravni položaj radnika, dovodeći u pitanje tradicionalno razlikovanje radnog odnosa i nezavisnog rada za drugog, ali i tradicionalnu (unitarnu) koncepciju poslodavca, budući da njegova ovlašćenja sada vrše dva ili više subjekata. Ozbiljnost navedenih izazova postaje veća ako se ima u vidu problem nedovoljnog broja i neodgovarajuće obučenosti inspektora rada, što redovno ima za posledicu sprovođenje nadzora samo nad neprihvatljivo skromnim delom (registrovanih i neregistrovanih) subjekata podložnih inspekcijskom nadzoru. Mala verovatnoća da će kod njih stvarno biti realizovana inspekcijska poseta dodatno ohrabruje poslodavce da nastave sa zaobilaženjem primene merodavnih propisa. Na to se nadovezuju i blage kazne koje inspektori rada imaju na raspolaganju, kao i činjenica da njihov rad neretko biva obesmišljen neažurnošću prekršajnih sudova. Konačno, poseban problem predstavlja i izostanak specijalizacije inspektora rada za pojedina radnopravna pitanja, odnosno za zaštitu određenih posebno osetljivih kategorija radnika. Autorka nastoji da ciljeve, funkcije i ovlašćenja inspekcije rada razmotri u svetlu standarda Međunarodne organizacije rada, kao i da ih preispita u svetlu aktuelnih tendencija u razvoju radnog prava, počevši od ekonomskog i političkog zaokreta ka neoliberalizmu, preko ekonomskih i finansijskih kriza, do intenzivnih međunarodnih migracija stanovništva.

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2022-05-09
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Originalni naučni rad